The World Health Organization (WHO) identifies the following as the top 10 global health challenges:
1. Universal Health Coverage (UHC): Ensuring that everyone, everywhere can access essential health services without facing financial hardship.
2. Non-communicable Diseases (NCDs): Addressing the rise of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, and respiratory diseases.
3. Mental Health: Promoting mental well-being and reducing the global burden of mental disorders.
4. Climate Change: Responding to the health impacts of climate change, including extreme weather events, air pollution, and the spread of infectious diseases.
5. Pandemics and Epidemics: Strengthening global preparedness and response mechanisms to outbreaks of infectious diseases like COVID-19, Ebola, and Zika.
6. Communicable Diseases: Confronting traditional global health threats such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and neglected tropical diseases.
7. Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR): Combating the growing resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics and other antimicrobial drugs.
8. Maternal and Child Health: Improving maternal and child health outcomes, including reducing maternal and child mortality rates.
9. Health in Fragile and Conflict-Affected Settings: Addressing health challenges in areas affected by conflicts, humanitarian crises, and weak health systems.
10. Health System Strengthening: Building resilient health systems that can deliver quality health services to all individuals, enhance health workforce capacity, and ensure access to essential medicines and technologies.
It is important to note that the ranking and categorization of these challenges may vary depending on different perspectives and evolving global health priorities.